Kevin P. McCauley
In the pre-industrialized world, that is any time before the 18th century, there are several common themes that occur all the time. In the industrialized and post-industrialized world, these same themes appear, but in different looks and different ways. The common themes are politics, modernity, globalization, socio-economic organization, and culture. Other kinds of themes are society and religion as well. These themes played out all differently in their own ways between the years 1500 and the present time.
Globalization is one theme that has been appearing for a long time in the world. The definition of globalization is the growth to a global or worldwide scale. The term globalization has been used in some literature to describe a process, a condition, a system, a force, and an age. Given that these completing labels have very different meanings, their indiscriminate usage is often obscure and invites a lot of confusion. To me, a good meaning of globalization is a movement towards greater interdependence and combing to make full completeness, such as integration.
Globalization has played a tough role in the twentieth and the twenty-first century. As globalization fosters human rights, environmental and labor standards, and womenâ€™s rights across the globe, they also â€œpose massive problems for the political organization that many had expected to emerge triumphant once empires had dissolvedâ€ (Worlds Together, Worlds Apart by Tignor, et.al. Page 454). A good example of this would be the nation-state. It has played good roles though as well. The World Wide Web is a huge example of globalization. The Internet connects billions of workers, governments, and private associates to a big source of communication. Some people say that all of these new creations and new ways of communication is the phenomenon of globalization.
This is untrue to my opinion. Globalization has been around the world for many years in the past. Trade is a huge example of globalization back in the earlier centuries. Even towards the end of the pre-modern period, the existing global trading network was including many interlocking trade circuits that connected the most populous regions of Eurasia and northeastern Africa.
Society is a theme that plays roles in between 1500 and 2005. Society could be summarized and defined as the totality of social relationships among humans, and a group of humans broadly distinguished from other groups by mutual interests, participation in characteristic relationships, shared institutions, and a common culture. Society in the 1500â€™s was much different than in todayâ€™s time. In the 16th century, society was more spread out, and somewhat smaller. Todayâ€™s time, society is everywhere. Colonization, communication, socio-economics, cultures, and religions are themes that all deal with society today. Back then, society was a more crucial theme. Being part of a society was real important. It is observed none of the societies became industrialized and modern over night; it is a long process that takes centuries.
Different societies jump into thresholds in different times, caused by different reasons and conditions, and times. It is important that there is not an exact time to jump one of the steps to the other. It is a progress in the society and when the proper conditions appear, society jumps the following threshold and will never turn back to the previous one. This is an example of a major theme of â€œmodernityâ€ as well as a society.
Modernity, to me, is caused by means of violence. I believe that violence has led to â€œmodernity,â€ although it may not be the best or most humanly act. Violence seems to be what has worked best to achieve true modernity. The definition of modernity is the quality of being current or of the present. What we call â€œmodernism,â€ the self-conscious sense came to prominence in many fields. Some good examples of modernity are architecture, physics, art, music, etc. Architecture has been dramatically changing for many years. Early looks of architecture are much different looking than the present architect work. Music has changed as well as dancing. Even soap, food, and other important essentials we use everyday deal with modernity and is very different from past times.
There were many uncertainties and insecurities in modernism in the 16th century and so on. Egyptian social scientists read the works of European thinkers. At the same time, German and French artists flocked to museums to look at different Egyptian artifacts. They were also looking at different paintings and sculptures that were located in Africa and Asia. All of these countries and continents.
Religion is a common theme that played many roles back in the 16th century and is still being played in the present time. Belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers regarded as creator and governor of the universe was what people were doing. Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). Religion has caused extensive warfare over many years in time. In the 16th Century, a good example of religious warfare is the Protestant Reformation. This reformation divided Europe religiously and politically. Yet, in every community in Europe, there were minority religious communities. In 1555, after nearly forty years of religious warfare, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was compelled to allow the German princes the right to choose whether Protestantism and Catholicism would be the official religion within their means. These conflicts weakened European Dynasties. Spain spent much of their money and fortune waging war in Europe. Europe, at this time, â€œentered its age of overseas dominance as a collection of increasingly powerful, yet competitive rival states.â€ (Worlds Together, Worlds Apart by Tignor Page 110). If religious warfare put Spain into money problems with the Netherlands and England, civil war would take place.
In industrialized times, religion is not so much a reason for war. Many religions are being created through different kinds of people through cults, movements, etc. In the United States of America, there are many different religions and cultures all over.
Having different cultures and religions living in the same country is something that is fairly new in the global world. Culture can be defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Thousands of cultures exist in the global world today. Cultures in the early times were also different, but not as friendly. Different cultures in certain parts of the world waged war on one another, because of their cultured differences. Israel and Pakistan is another good example of cultured warfare and religious warfare in the early times. This cultured argument has been going on for centuries.
There was also a cultural renaissance in the period between 1600 and 1780. Books started to publish very rapidly, luxurious items were easier to get access for wider enjoyment, and new monuments all over were starting to be constructed all over the place. The Chinese and Islamic cultural flourishing were generating largely by social forces, as well as cultural forces, from within (internally) rather than the outside parameters.
The world in the seventh and eighteenth centuries was more tightly integrated. Populations moved around with increasing frequency, and mercantile transactions involving distant groups were able to deal with increasing interactions and borrowing.
Socio-economic organizations are being created a lot in the present times. A socio-economic organization can be defined as the enterprise as a complex whole including types of structure interacting with different types of economic factors. Socio-economic organizations are being created to help other people, or societies, to maintain a good economy.
In conclusion, these five themes play a huge roll in the world that we live in today, whether it is in Europe, France, Africa, China, the United States, or anywhere else. Things have been changing dramatically over the years, and modernism is changing frequently. Cultures, religions, globalization, socio-economic organizations, individuality, and rules of politics are being created and changed every year. Different types of communication systems, ways of learning, technology, and new forms of military, are examples of what kind of globalization is being spread. New things are happening everyday in our world whether good or bad, and things are being developed everyday. Only time will tell for what happens in the near future of our world.