Index / Social Issues / EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIME MAPPING ACTIVITIES OF LUCENA CITY POLICE STATION AS VIEWED BY SELECTED BARANGAY CAPTAINS OF LUCENA CITY

EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIME MAPPING ACTIVITIES OF LUCENA CITY POLICE STATION AS VIEWED BY SELECTED BARANGAY CAPTAINS OF LUCENA CITY

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EFFECTIVENESS OF CRIME MAPPING ACTIVITIES OF LUCENA CITY POLICE STATION AS VIEWED BY SELECTED BARANGAY CAPTAINS OF LUCENA CITY




An Undergraduate Thesis
Presented to the Faculty of
College Criminology and Law Enforcement
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City





In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology





By

ARON MARK C. ODI
ERVING ANTENOR
ALVIN MANALO

March 2012

ABSTRACT
This study sought to determine the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention.
The respondents of this study were ten (10) selected barangay captains-respondents of Brgy. XI, Cotta, Ibabang Talim, Ransohan, Silangang Mayao, Kanlurang Mayao, Mayao Crossing, Bocohan, Ibabang Dupay and Gulang-gulang in Lucena City.
The researchers prepared a questionnaire as a primary tool in data gathering. They relied on books, magazines, premiers, newspaper, and other related sources pertinent to her study. Verbal interviews were also conducted to establish the credibility of her study and confirm some of their thoughts.
Findings revealed that majority of the respondents believed that crime mapping operations help the law enforcers in their efficient performance and work productivity. It was also revealed that majority of the respondents believed that as an adjunct to community policing, crime mapping helped the law enforcers of Lucena to better analyze crime data and understands why and not just where crime is occurring
The researchers also believed that better law enforcement strategy and administration have been implemented in the station to deal with the criminality problem in the city.

It was recommended that the local government units must continue to support the crime mapping operations of Lucena City PNP, as well as other programs and activities pertinent to the maintenance of public safety and community's citizen empowerment
Re-orientation of the program to the local community as well as "maximizing the local people" must also be done in order to make local people be fully aware of their rights and responsibilities.
And lastly, constant negotiation and communication between the people and their local government unit must take place to settle conflicts on contemporary issues affecting their place. This can be done through proper coordination with the proper authorities.

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Felony affects all parts of the country as well as every aspect of community life.. Purse snatching, pick-pockets, fare fraud usually happen at the market, shopping malls, crowded places and even in church. Also, encounters with corrupt policemen as well as insistent beggars are regular episodes of Philippine day-to-day fate.
Despite some improvement in law and order, crime remained a major problem in the Philippines. Police attributed the country's chronic crime problems to a variety of social and cultural factors. Widespread poverty and rapid population growth were frequently cited. Population pressures and a shortage of land and jobs in rural areas had produced a steady internal migration to the cities.
This urbanization of a traditionally agrarian society was commonly mentioned as cause for increased crime rates. In this light, the Philippine National Police particularly the Police Intelligence Unit, Criminal Investigation Unit and the Narcotics Unit all uses crime mapping activities in order to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns in the city.
The Police Intelligence Unit headed by a director with the rank of chief superintendent serves as the intelligence and counterintelligence operating unit of the station. The Criminal Investigation Unit undertakes the monitoring, investigation and prosecution of all crimes involving economic sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and extent as to indicate their commission by highly placed or professional criminal syndicates and organizations. This unit shall likewise investigate all major cases involving violations of Revised Penal Code and operate against organized crime groups, unless the President assigns the case exclusively to the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI).
On the other hand, the Narcotics Unit enforces all laws relative to the protection of the citizenry against dangerous and other prohibited drugs and substances.
In particular, one Lucena City police pointed to the growth of urban slum and squatter areas; more than 25 percent of the population of Lucena was thought to be squatters in the late 1990s.
According to an interview with the same official, the widespread possession of firearms--including automatic rifles--was another factor contributing to crime. Undisciplined private armies, usually maintained by local politicians and wealthy families, and numerous organized crime gangs, particularly in big barangays, were the biggest violators of firearms laws, the official further said.
In the above situation, it is not surprising that crime rates were certainly high in most major urban areas, just like in Lucena. Crimes indeed proliferate with the acceleration of change and development. No doubt, it is magnified when this process is accompanied with the negative impact of population growth, unemployment and rapid urbanization.
In order to achieve political, cultural and economic growth, peace and order problems must be addressed as it affects all parts of the city and every aspect of community life of every Lucenahin.
The Philippine National Police (PNP) is the national police force of the Republic of the Philippines. It is both a national and a local police force in that it provides all law enforcement services throughout the Philippines.
It is both a national and a local police force in that it provides all law enforcement services throughout the Philippines. The Philippine National Police, which was a result of a merger of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police, was activated on January 29, 1991. Its national headquarters are based at Camp Crame, Quezon City, in the National Capital Region.
According to a 2011 article published in D+C magazine, the PNP has had a host of problems, namely corruption and oppression, since its beginning, but it is hoped that the problems will be fixed with the new administration coming into power.
Like all police organizations all over the world, the Philippine National Police Office is expected to perform its mandated tasks within the bounds of law, to uphold the rights of the citizens, to protect the lives and properties of the members of society and promote and keep civil order. As the people's servants and protectors, the members of the police force are expected to satisfy the security needs of the constituents of the country.
During the recent administration, the government initiatives targeted corruption, crime, and terrorism. Peace and Order Councils at the national, regional, and provincial level were rejuvenated under the President Benigno Aquino administration. By regularly bringing together responsible government, military, and community leaders, the government hoped to improve the effectiveness of its anticrime and counterinsurgency programs.
AFP and police commanders also attempted to address the problems of internal corruption and abuse, which, they admitted, undermined public confidence in, and cooperation with, the security forces. Top military leaders routinely publicized retraining programs, the discharge and demotion of scalawags in the ranks, and other measures designed to improve discipline. The military also mounted a counternarcotics effort, spearheaded by the constabulary's Narcotics Command. Government agents more than doubled arrests during 1989 and eradicated millions of marijuana plants, but they still found it difficult to keep pace with the growing drug trade (Quejano, 2011).
Crime analysis, crime mapping and the ability to operate in an information-sharing environment are becoming critical functions for the 21st century law enforcement. By taking full advantage of crime analysis, law enforcement agencies can combine geographic data with a wealth of local crime and administrative to paint a more comprehensive picture of why crime happens, where it does (or does not), rather than simply nothing (Boba, 2005).
Solutions planned in partnerships and undertaken cooperatively with other government officials will have a broader and longer-lasting impact.
It is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. Mapping crime, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allows crime analysts to identify crime hot spots, along with other trends and patterns.
Using GIS, crime analysts can overlay other datasets such as census demographics, locations of pawn shops, schools, etc., to better understand the underlying causes of crime and help law enforcement administrators to devise strategies to deal with the problem. GIS is also useful for law enforcement operations, such as allocating police officers and dispatching to emergencies.
Crime analysts use crime mapping and analysis to help law enforcement management (e.g. the police chief) to make better decisions, target resources, and formulate strategies, as well as for tactical analysis (e.g. crime forecasting, geographic profiling). New York City does this through the CompStat approach, though that way of thinking deals more with the short term. There are other, related approaches with terms including Information-led policing, Intelligence-led policing, Problem-oriented policing, and Community policing. In some law enforcement agencies, crime analysts work in civilian positions, while in other agencies, crime analysts are sworn officers.
Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder. Information on patterns can help law enforcement agencies deploy resources in a more effective manner, and assist detectives in identifying and apprehending suspects. Crime analysis also plays a role in devising solutions to crime problems, and formulating crime prevention strategies. Quantitative social science data analysis methods are part of the crime analysis process, though qualitative methods such as examining police report narratives also play a role.
Underlying theories that help explain spatial behavior of criminals include environmental criminology, which was devised in the 1980s by Patricia and Paul Brantingham, routine activity theory, developed by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson and originally published in 1979, and rational choice theory, developed by Ronald V. Clarke and Derek Cornish, originally published in 1986. In recent years, crime mapping and analysis has incorporated spatial data analysis techniques that add statistical rigor and address inherent limitations of spatial data, including spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. Spatial data analysis helps one analyze crime data and better understand why and not just where crime is occurring.
Research into computer-based crime mapping started in 1986, when the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded a project in the Chicago Police Department to explore crime mapping as an adjunct to community policing. That project was carried out by the CPD in conjunction with the Chicago Alliance for Neighborhood Safety, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Northwestern University, reported on in the book, Mapping Crime in Its Community Setting: Event Geography Analysis. The success of this project prompted NIJ to initiate the Drug Market Analysis Program (with the appropriate acronym D-MAP) in five cities, and the techniques these efforts developed led to the spread of crime mapping throughout the US and elsewhere, including the New York City Police Department's Compstat.
Crime analysis can occur at various levels, including tactical, operational, and strategic. Crime analysts study crime reports, arrests reports, and police calls for service to identify emerging patterns, series, and trends as quickly as possible. They analyze these phenomena for all relevant factors, sometimes predict or forecast future occurrences, and issue bulletins, reports, and alerts to their agencies. They then work with their police agencies to develop effective strategies and tactics to address crime and disorder. Other duties of crime analysts may include preparing statistics, data queries, or maps on demand; analyzing beat and shift configurations; preparing information for community or court presentations; answering questions from the public and the press; and providing data and information support for a police department's CompStat process.
Sociodemographics, along with spatial and temporal information, are all aspects that crime analysts look at to understand what's going on in their jurisdiction. Crime analysis employs data mining, crime mapping, statistics, research methods, desktop publishing, charting, presentation skills, critical thinking, and a solid understanding of criminal behavior. In this sense, a crime analyst serves as a combination of an information systems specialist, a statistician, a researcher, a criminologist, a journalist, and a planner for a local police department.
From a research and policy perspective, crime mapping is used to understand patterns of incarceration and recidivism, help target resources and programs, and evaluate crime prevention or crime reduction programs in every city.
The City of Lucena (Filipino: Lungsod ng Lucena) is a first class highly urbanized medium sized city in the province of Quezon, Philippines. It is the capital city of Quezon and belongs to the 20 most competitive cities of the Philippines. According to the 2011 census, it has a population of 270,000 people in 45,902 households. Nearby towns include Pagbilao (east), Tayabas (north) and Sariaya (west). It has a latest annual income of at least Fifty Million Pesos (P50,000,000.00), is one of the twenty (20) most competitive cities in the country. In fact, it is the only first class, highly urbanized city in the Calabarzon Region (MyLucena, 2011).
As of this year, the total number of population of the city is 271,792 among the 56,232 house hold. It is projected that by next year, the total number of population is 278,886 in 57,700 household. (Population Commission, 2012)

The city is considered as one of the growth centers in Southern Tagalog. It is the gateway to Southern Tagalog, Metro Manila and other parts of mainland Luzon from the Bicol region and the island provinces of Marinduque, Masbate, Palawan and Romblon. The city is linked to its neighboring towns, cities and provices through various transports. The most used transport networks are the city roads with a total length of about 18.38 kms.of well paved roads. Traffic congestion is of the major problems being addressed by the present administration (MyLucena, 2011).
However, looking among its streets, it is very typical to see and hear drug users, thieves and criminals hanging in the busy streets of this city. Indeed, one of the miseries brought by the modern civilization is this situation.
Through the use of crime mapping, the analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder is more systematic in Lucena City. This indeed had helped the law enforcement unit to deploy proper authorities in a more effective manner, particularly in identifying and apprehending suspects.
With the above premises in mind, the researchers conducted this study to determine the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention.
Statement of the Problem
This study sought to determine the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention.
Specifically the research sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of :
a. age?
b. gender?
c. civil status?
d. religion?
e. educational background?
2. What is the respondent's view on the role of crime mapping operations in Lucena City?
3. What is the level of effectiveness of crime mapping operations with regards to crime prevention?
4. What are the perceived impacts of crime mapping operation in the maintenance of peace and order in Lucena City?
Conceptual Framework
Figure 1 presents a schematic diagram of the variables of the study. Two independent or cause variable are presented, one is the goal which is the maintenance of peace and order in the city as indicated by the programs, projects, and activities and the other is the utilization of crime mapping in Lucena City Police Station.
The dependent or effect variables are (1) rate of crime, (2) efficiency of crime solution and (3) the community support and involvement.
The arrows show the cause-effect relationship of the mentioned variables. The effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention are the causes and the resulting rate of crime, efficiency of crime solutions and community support and involvement are the effects.

Conceptual Paradigm
The researcher's conceptual framework can then be illustrated as follows:











Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm


Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention.
The output of this study will be of great importance to the following:
The MSEUF Crimonology Students: This will also assist them in their effective and efficient performance in their respective field in the future, as they will sooner become part of the growing working-class movement.
The Professors: It will inspire and motivate them further in their endless search for better and effective techniques in effective Social Sciences subjects.
The Parents: It will help them to realize their important role in their children's studies. As such, their guidance is indeed a great help in their children's knowledge on the said subject matter.
The MSEUF Academic community: The researcher believes that this research will serve as a guide and would be of huge importance to the academic community of Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation in Lucena City, particularly those who take up Bachelor of Science in Criminology course.
Likewise, this work will be of high significance to those researching for this particular topic. It will provide them opportunities to become aware of the current situation of criminal-hunting activities in Lucena City.
In this way, it will prepare every student to become a responsible participating member of a democratic society. As such, this will aid them become educationally, emotionally and socially conscious in their everyday living.

The legacy of quality teaching-learning process inside the Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation in in Lucena City academic community serves as the thrust of this research.
This will largely concern on establishing facts and figures to further penetrate the study of the role of the Philippine National Police in regulating youth in public spaces as viewed by selected officers of Lucena City Police Station.
These will largely concern on establishing facts and figures to further penetrate the study into insights to attain an atmosphere conducive to the researchers, the respondents and the Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation in in Lucena City academic community.
Scope and Limitations
This study focuses on the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention
This scholarly work will be restricted to selected barangay chairpersons of Lucena City where the facts and data were come collected from.
The conduct of this study will cover school year 2011- 2012. Weighted arithmetic mean and chi-square will be used as the statistical tools to complete this study.
The respondents were given questionnaires constructed by the researchers. The descriptive method or design was utilized.
Definition of Terms
For better understanding and clarity, the researchers briefly explain the following terms used in this study:
Analysis refers the process as a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations.
Community refers to a group of interacting organisms sharing a populated environment.
Community-based programs refers to the programs provided in a community setting developed for purposes of intervention and diversion, as well as rehabilitation of the child in conflict with the law, for reintegration into his/her family and/or community.
Country refers to a nation or state that is politically independent, or a land that was formerly independent and remains separate in some respects
Crime refers to an action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the state and that is legally prohibited.
Crime Mapping refers to a tool that helps the police officers to better understand the underlying causes of a particular crime. It is a devise that maps, visualizes, and analyzes crime incident patterns in the city.
Experiences refers to a general concept comprises knowledge of or skill in or observation of something or some event gained through involvement n or exposure to that particular thing or event
Felony here refers to an offense, as murder or burglary, of graver character than those called delinquency.
Intervention here refers to a series of activities which are designed to address issues that caused the child to commit an offense. It may take the form of an individualized treatment program which may include counseling, skills training, education and other activities that will enhance his/her psychological, emotional and psycho-social well-being.
Morale refers to the composite feelings of individuals and groups towards life, environment and work.
Prevention refers the act of preventing; effectual hindrance.
Problem refers to a situation that needs solution.
Society here refers to relationships among groups: the sum of social relationships among groups of humans or animals
Solution here means a way of resolving difficulty: a method of successfully dealing with a problem or difficulty
Street crimes here are crimes that happen in public places or on the streets.
Study refers to the process of learning about something through intensive reading and researching
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter is an assessment of related literature and studies, which the researcher used in the conceptualization and focusing on this research.
Books, magazines and newspapers, public statements as well as the Internet were utilized and information, which has significance to the study, were carefully analyzed and scrutinized to establish the credibility of the research conducted.
Review of Related Literaturea
These studies were concerned with the development of the authors' own knowledge and ability as they explore the world of crimes and the criminal justice system itself.
While the police attributed the country's chronic crime problems to a variety of social and cultural factors, other issues and social concerns like widespread poverty and rapid population growth are also to be considered.
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce victimization and to deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.
Although the exact future can be seldom be predicted and factors beyond control may interfere with the best laid crime mapping, it is very important to broaden the minds of the readers to further acquire knowledge on other studies concerning this academic study.
According to Wilson (2010), in working with many analysts across the United States, analysts spend their day analyzing data related to crime and safety. Certain geographic environments and specific types of places are known to attract or repel crimes. An analyst's job is to bring this information together and identify opportunities to both solve and prevent crimes (Hunch, 2009).
According to the Warner (2011), law enforcement executives, city managers and municipal planners also appreciate the fact that crime can be influence by municipal expansions, brought on by housing construction and commercial development, by population declines due to local economic downturns or by new immigration patterns.
Meanwhile, Thompson (2003) in another credible study stated that understanding that certain location and conditions may repel or attract crimes is the only first step.
He added that reactionary law enforcement responses to crimes such as crackdowns, intervention programs or resource deployments which are common, but are only temporary solutions.
Thompson further asserted that law enforcement leaders can only be as effective as the policies and practices that they are empowered to enact. According to him, solutions planned in partnership and undertaken cooperatively with other government official will have a broader and longer lasting impact.
According to Guerrero (2003), police community relation is a two-way relationship with the specific intent of bringing about modification. This change is desirable not only on the part of the public but with the police as well as with the community.
Furthermore, he stated that to in order to make the community goal successful, police cooperation is needed, as unit of town and habitat place is the primary object of protection held by the law enforcers.
He also added that as protectors, they are the one who know the crime and the one who are responsible for the improvement of the community although it also requires the participation of the subordinates and the citizens.
Lastly, another plausible study is from Wilson (2005) who asserted that law enforcement agencies must employ long term solutions to the crimes, ultimately, must engaged that "rule changers," including the city and country administrators and the urban planners, who hold the authority to alter a broader range of factors that affect crime prevention and intervention.
Review of Related Studies
Alonzo, Susan (2004) conducted a study in the Philippines that justifies that
the rapid population of the country is because of poverty in which, at 2.04 percent, is one of the highest in Asia. A close association exists between our country's chronic poverty and rapid population growth, as the latter diminishes overall economic growth and blights the prospects of poverty reduction.
De Guzman, Alma (2008) established the systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder.
She stated that information on patterns can help law enforcement agencies deploy resources in a more effective manner, and assist detectives in identifying and apprehending suspects.
Meanwhile, Belosillo (2007), in another study stated that crime analysis also plays a significant role in devising solutions to crime problems, and formulating crime prevention strategies.
He further asserted that quantitative social science data analysis methods are part of the crime analysis process; though qualitative methods such as examining police report narratives also play an important role.
In this scholarly work, the researchers considered these fundamental to this study as a blueprint for clearer understanding of the effectiveness of crime mapping activities and its implication to preventing crimes in the community.
Summing up, Alonzo, De Guzman and Bellosilo all laid their viewpoint on the theories that various social and cultural factors such as the negative impact of population growth, unemployment and rapid urbanization can be attributed to the chronic problem of crimes in the country.
After examining it in the light of Philippine social realities, and informed by the researchers' Christian faith, the researchers' have reached the conclusion that in order to achieve political, cultural and economic growth, peace and order, problems must be addressed as it affects all parts of the city and every aspect of community life of every Lucenahin.
Scientific and modern approach in the analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder and its implication to the over-all community development, which was essential to this study, was carefully tackled.
All rooted on stressing the exigency of systematic understanding of the core principles of a democratic society: the sanctity of human life, the dignity of the human person, the preferential option for the poor and vulnerable, integral human development, human rights, and the primacy of conscience.









CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter divulges established theories and principles pertinent to the study. This presents the theoretical framework, which highlight the theories used and the underlying principles that eventually support the study and the methods used in data gathering or the research methodology.
Research Methodology
Research Design
The descriptive method of research was used in this study, which consists of the analysis, description, recording and interpretation of the present nature, compositions or process of the existing phenomena.
The study used the research instrument in the form of interview and questionnaire method. Finally for statistical treatment, the researcher will use simple percentage and the weighted mean method in gathering final result on the given questionnaire.
Respondents
The respondents of this study were selected barangay captains of Brgy. XI, Cotta, Ibabang Talim, Ransohan, Silangang Mayao, Kanlurang Mayao, Mayao Crossing, Bocohan, Ibabang Dupay and Gulang-gulang in Lucena City.

Research Locale
This study was conducted in Lucena City. Specifically, the interviews and distribution of questionnaires were administered in respective residences and offices of ten (10) barangay captains-respondents of Brgy. XI, Cotta, Ibabang Talim, Ransohan, Silangang Mayao, Kanlurang Mayao, Mayao Crossing, Bocohan, Ibabang Dupay and Gulang-gulang in Lucena City.

Samples Procedure
The researcher used case study for ten (10) selected barangay captains-respondents in in Lucena City.
Research Instrumentation
The researcher prepared a questionnaire as a primary tool in data gathering. The researcher relied on books, magazines, premiers, newspaper, and other related sources pertinent to her study. Verbal interviews were also conducted to establish the credibility of her study and confirm some thoughts of the researcher.
Formulated questions were based on the answers/ideas from the same students interviewed by the researcher and who were not involved in the study.
This was done to ensure that firsthand information from student's perception were made basis in the formulation of the questionnaire.


Data Gathering Procedure
Data gathering procedure were through written questionnaires which were distributed among said selected barangay captains-respondents in Lucena City.
Statistical Treatment
The researcher will use simple percentage formula, and the frequency distribution in the collection and interpretation of the data gathered.

a. A simple percentage Method

% = F x 100
n
where =
f = frequency
% = percentage
n = number of respondents
b. Weighted Mean Method
XM = Ef (w)
n
where = E = summation
F = frequency
W = weight per option
n = number of respondents
XM = weighted mean

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data through gathered questionnaire. They were interpreted in the form of figures, graphs and tables. The data were clearly analyzed and interpreted by the researchers to deliver a good and better understanding of the study.

Part I dealt with the demographic profile of the respondents which was presented in the form of figures or graphical form.
Part II inquired with the barangay officials - respondents' views on the role of crime mapping operations in Lucena City
Part III determined the level of effectiveness of crime mapping operations with regards to crime prevention
Part IV elaborated the problems perceived impacts of crime mapping operation in the maintenance of peace and order in Lucena City

Part I Demographic Profile of the Respondents

The profiles of the respondents play a very imperative role in every academic study. In one way or another, the demographic profile has an essential and significant bearing on the direction of one's investigation.
Figure 1 exhibits the barangay officials - respondents' age bracket.












Figure 1. Distribution of Selected Barangay Captains of
Various barangays of Lucena City According to Age

Figure 1 showed that the majority or 100% of selected barangay captains in Lucena respondents were within the age bracket of 25 and above. None of them falls to age brackets 22 to 24, 19 to 21 and 16 to 18, respectively.

It can be seen clearly from the above figures that the selected barangay captains – respondents in Lucena City were in the proper age fitted for public officials holding an office in a local government unit, as mandated by the Local Government Code.
Age is important in every statistical data as it shows the respondents' level of maturity which, obviously, highly affects the respondents' answers.












Figure 2. Distribution of Selected Barangay Captains of
Various barangays of Lucena City According to Gender

Determining the gender of the respondents is of highly importance in every demographical data as it shows how many male and female barangay officials were selected as respondents.

The figures showed the graphical distributions of the study's respondents according to sex. These disclosed that majority or 90% of the selected barangay officials – respondents in Lucena City were male while there is only 1 or 10% female among the respondents.
This result is attributed to the fact that in the field of politics, male usually engaged themselves more than female.












Figure 3. Distribution of Selected Barangay Captains of
Various barangays of Lucena City According to Civil Status

The graph above shows the distribution of respondents according to their civil status. Obviously, majority of the respondents are married, who got the highest percentage of 80%.
On the other hand, those who are separated and those who are widow or widower both got 10%.


Figure 4. Distribution of Selected Barangay Captains of
Various barangays of Lucena City According to Religion

Figure 4 showed that majority of selected barangay officials of Lucena City -respondents belong to the Roman Catholic Religion with 80% or 7 out of 10 respondents.
There were 2 or 20% barangay captains who were Born Again Christians while the remaining 1 official or 10% is an Iglesia ni Cristo follower. There was no member of Protestant religion, respectively.
This finding implies that most of the barangay captains - respondents of Lucena city were Roman Catholic. Add to that, Lucena City Quezon is a Roman Catholic-dominated since Spanish era.
The researchers believe that religion plays a very considerable role in this academic study. According to some studies Professor Jose Araceli (2004) of the University of the Philippines, religion highly affects the individual's perception regarding things and/or ideas. For example, some sect restricts their members to neither participate in various social activities nor answer in surveys, as they regard them "sinful" to their religion.

Figure 5. Distribution of Selected Barangay Captains of
various barangays of Lucena City according
to their Educational Background

The graph above shows that majority or 50% of the barangay officials – respondents are college graduate. There were 30% college undergraduates while there were 20% who admitted they were in high school level only. There was no official – respondents who currently pursues post-graduate or masteral studies, on the other hand.
The level of education of the respondents plays a very significant role in this academic study. As required by the Local Government Code, officials holding an office on the local government unit such as the barangay only require a candidate who was citizen of that locality and a high school graduate.



Table I. A revealed the selected barangay captains' level of awareness on the crime mapping operations in Lucena City
Based on the responses given by the selected barangay captains –respondents, statement 10 lucidly stated that the crime mapping operations "helps in making better decisions, target resources, and formulate strategies, as well as for tactical analysis in law enforcement management," ranked 1 and garnered the weighted mean of 4.70.
It was followed by statement 7 with a weighted mean of 4.60 and ranked 2nd which state that "crime mapping is a tool that helps the police officers to better understand the underlying causes of a particular crime."
Meanwhile, they were against to the statement that the "through this (crime mapping), the pursued programs of the station such as developing, reviewing and advocating policies responsive to the needs of the people are met." This has a weighted mean of 1.8 and ranked 10, respectively.
This can be attributed to the fact that not all programs related to the prevention of crimes are achieved by the police authorities of Lucena. It is not that surprising that crime was certainly high in most major areas, since this is accompanied with the negative impact of population growth, unemployment and rapid urbanization.


Table III-A revealed the level of effectiveness of Lucena City PNP in crime mapping operations.
Based on the responses given by the selected Lucena City barangay captains – respondents, "As an adjunct to community policing, crime mapping helped the law enforcers of Lucena to better analyze crime data and understands why and not just where crime is occurring," gathered a weighted mean of 79 and ranked 1, respectively.
Meanwhile, they do not believe that "Because of crime mapping, the city is now considered one of the crime-free cities in the country." as contributory factor affecting the respondents comprehension in the effectiveness of crime mapping operations in Lucena City. This has a weighted mean of 8 and ranked 10 among the roster of statements.
The researcher concluded that this positive response from both of the respondents is attributed to the good and conducive atmosphere in their respective communities, as well as their good management styles.



The table showed that the majority of the selected barangay captains – respondents in Lucena City believed that because of crime mapping operations, "better law enforcement strategy and administration have been implemented in the station to deal with the criminality problem in the city." It earned a 79 weighted mean and ranked 1 among the rest.
Statement 9 ranked 2nd among the questions and garnered a weighted mean of 74, respectively. It states that "Information-led policing, Intelligence-led policing, Problem-oriented policing, and Community policing also improved because of the station's utilization of crime mapping. "
On the other hand, they favored least statement two which states that "Because of crime mapping, effective strategies and tactics to address crime and disorders have been developed by Lucena City police station," which flunked into ranked 10 and gathered a 8 weighted mean, respectively.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers conducted this study to determine the effectiveness of crime mapping activities of Lucena City Police Station and its implication to crime prevention.
Specifically the research sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of :
a. age?
b. gender?
c. civil status?
d. religion?
e. educational background?
2. What is the respondent's view on the role of crime mapping operations in Lucena City?
3. What is the level of effectiveness of crime mapping operations with regards to crime prevention?
4. What are the perceived impacts of crime mapping operation in the maintenance of peace and order in Lucena City?

Summary of Findings
After the data were gathered, tabulated and interpreted, the following findings were derived:
1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents
1.1 That majority or 100% of selected barangay captains in Lucena respondents were within the age bracket of 25 and above.
1.2 That majority or 90% of the selected barangay officials – respondents in Lucena City were male while there is only 1 or 10% female among the respondents.
1.3 That majority of the respondents are married, who got the highest percentage of 80%.
1.4 That majority of the respondents are married, who got the highest percentage of 80%.
1.5 That majority or 50% of the barangay officials – respondents are college graduate
2. Respondents' perception on the role of crime mapping operations in Lucena City
That majority of the respondents believed that crime mapping operations
help the law enforcers in their efficient performance and work productivity. It ranked 1 and garnered the weighted mean of 79.


3. Respondents' perception on the level of effectiveness of crime mapping operations with regards to crime prevention
That majority of the respondents favored believed that as an adjunct to community policing, crime mapping helped the law enforcers of Lucena to better analyze crime data and understands why and not just where crime is occurring.
Respondents' perception on the perceived That majority of the respondents favored believed that as an adjunct to community policing, crime mapping helped the law enforcers of Lucena to better analyze crime data and understands why and not just where crime is occurring.
4. impacts of crime mapping operation in the maintenance of peace and order in Lucena City
That majority of the respondents believed that "better law enforcement strategy and administration have been implemented in the station to deal with the criminality problem in the city." It earned a 79 weighted mean and ranked 1 among the rest.
Conclusions:
Based on the data gathered, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions:
1. That majority of selected barangay captains -respondents were significantly not young in age, male, Roman Catholic and were college graduates
2. That crime mapping operation is a very much imperative in helping the police authorities in the maintenance of peace and order in the city, since this helps them in the efficiency and productivity of their work performance.
3. That crime mapping, as an adjunct to community policing, helps the law enforcers of Lucena to better analyze crime data and understands why and not just where crime is occurring.
4. That better and innovative law enforcement strategy and administration must be implemented in the station to deal with the problem of criminality in the city.
Recommendations
After the review of findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are made:
1. Local government units must continue to support the crime mapping operations of Lucena City PNP, as well as other programs and activities pertinent to the maintenance of public safety and community's citizen empowerment.
2. Re-orientation of the program to the local community as well as "maximizing the local people" must be done in order to make local people be fully aware of their rights and responsibilities.
3. Constant negotiation and communication between the people and their local government unit must take place to settle conflicts on contemporary issues affecting their place. This can be done through proper coordination with the proper authorities.
Implications of the Study
Like all police organizations all over the world, the Philippine National Police Office is expected to perform its mandated tasks within the bounds of law, to uphold the rights of the citizens, to protect the lives and properties of the members of society and promote and keep civil order. As the people's servants and protectors, the members of the police force are expected
However, despite some improvement in law and order, crime remained a major problem in the Philippines. Police attributed the country's chronic crime problems to a variety of social and cultural factors. Widespread poverty and rapid population growth were frequently cited. Population pressures and a shortage of land and job in rural areas had produced a steady internal migration to the cities.
As of this year, the total number of population of the city is 271,792 among the 56,232 house hold. It is projected that by next year, the total number of population is 278,886 in 57,700 household. (Population Commission, 2012)
It is not surprising that crime rates were certainly high in most major urban areas, just like in Lucena. Crimes indeed proliferate with the acceleration of change and development in the area. No doubt, it is magnified when this process is accompanied with the negative impact of population growth, unemployment and rapid urbanization.
In order to achieve political, cultural and economic growth, peace and order problems must be addressed as it affects all parts of the city and every aspect of community life of every Lucenahin.
The city is considered as one of the growth centers in Southern Tagalog. It is the gateway to Southern Tagalog, Metro Manila and other parts of mainland Luzon from the Bicol region and the island provinces of Marinduque, Masbate, Palawan and Romblon. The city is linked to its neighboring towns, cities and provices through various transports. The most used transport networks are the city roads with a total length of about 18.38 kms.of well paved roads. Traffic congestion is of the major problems being addressed by the present administration (MyLucena, 2011).
However, looking among its streets, it is very typical to see and hear drug users, thieves and criminals hanging in the busy streets of this city. Indeed, one of the miseries brought by the modern civilization is this situation.
Through the use of crime mapping, the analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder is more systematic in Lucena City. This indeed had helped the law enforcement unit to deploy proper authorities



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