Category: American History
Autor: auto66 02 May 2010
Words: 1222 | Pages: 5
The Impact of New England Puritan Captivity Narratives
â€œI hope I can say in some measure, As David did, It is good for me that I have been afflicted.â€
The mentality that existed amongst Puritans that sought to account for Godâ€™s reasons for affliction by captivity was that it was His punishment. Thus their subsequent redemption was viewed as His mercy. They saw the many occurrences of captivities as a warning that all of New England must heed the lessons to be learned by captivity or they will continue to be afflicted with suffering. The narratives themselves not only revealed the history of the Indian wars against the people of New England, namely Puritans or settlers of the seventeenth century, but also revealed much about the Puritan way of thought.
The Captivity Narrative is one of the oldest literary forms coming from America. The earliest American captives were most certainly not settlers, they were natives held captive by Spaniards who were looking for riches, guides and interpreters. It was not long before the American Indians began to retaliate and take their own captives. However, since Europeans already had an established literary from and publication technique, the first captivity narratives told of the horrors of American Indians as captors. For three hundred years what came to be known as â€œCaptivity Narrativesâ€ flourished in the New World and the Old World, which made the new genre exceedingly popular.
The latter part of the seventeenth century began to mark the beginnings of captivity narratives as a separate literary genre. Before then, they existed purely as smaller portions of larger literary endeavors, such as the many explorersâ€™ accounts of captivity, i.e. Cabeza de Vaca or John Smithâ€™s Voyageâ€¦. In the last quarter of the seventeenth century began the marked occurrence of the New England Puritan captivity accounts.
Initially Puritans approached their accounts of captivity with much discretion. They were usually written approximately five years or more after they had occurred and were privately printed. When the Public of the day ultimately got a hold of them, they became incredibly popular and afterwards were more readily written and printed. One could say that the Puritan captivity narrative truly began in 1682 with Mary Rowlandsonâ€™s account during what was known as King Philipâ€™s war. Rowlandsonâ€™s Soveraingty and Goodness of Godâ€¦Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is an account that can be classified by the insight it provides into the mentality and driving forces of what makes up the essence of Puritanical society. Her narrative is drenched in comments of Godâ€™s role in the life of one person and His role on the whole of society. Rowlandsonâ€™s concentration in her narrative is not based upon deliverance but upon affliction itself, â€œIn sum, the Rowlandsonâ€™s publisher promised an intensely personal account of Godâ€™s testing and eventual salvation of a tormented soul, and a broad hint that her experience might foretell in the microcosm, the fate of all Puritans.â€ (Vaughn 4)
Spiritual autobiography such as Mary Rowlandsonâ€™s was encouraged by Puritanical standards since it aided in the search for â€œpersonal salvation.â€ The spiritual autobiography by way of Indian captivity narratives was incredibly popular amongst Puritans because the captiveâ€™s journey was an obvious mirror-situation to the search for salvation itself, as said by Howard Peckham in his introduction to a compilation of captivity narratives, â€œThe former appetite for these accounts is astonishing. The seventeenth and early eighteenth century narratives were read as tests of religious faith by people with a Christian concern.â€ (viii)
There were groups of narrators who, by their captivity, gained empathy towards their forced Indian captivity and proceeded to relate it in their account. One of these is John Gyles, who found there to be much to admire about the Indians hunting skill and spiritual accuracy, although he maintained his personal doctrines of thought. Most captives like Gyles wrote about the parts of the Native American way of life that they respected, however they more often than not maintained personal imbedded Puritanical views.
Some of the Puritanical narratives are of cases or accounts in which former captives could no longer return to their previous way of life. James Smithâ€™s Account of the Remarkable Occurrences in the Life and Travels of Col. James Smith was not published until thirty years after his captivity, partly because he felt that American society was not ready to accept it for what it was. The affectionate nature of some parts of his essay led him to believe that the public of the day would see his account as no different than a fairy tale rather than an honest account of captivity. Their Puritan mentalities could not readily accept any situations of an affliction to be pleasing since it would directly interfere with what they believed was Godâ€™s purpose in being taken as an Indian captive.
The style of captivity narratives became a distinction of the New England location as a whole. The religious enthusiasm and the churchâ€™s involvement with their subsequent composition, printing and publishing became all part of the major tone of what is defined as a New England captivity narrative. Hardly a piece could be found that was free of any religious involvement. Possibly because of the clerical affiliation with works there were many literary devices that could be founding a typical Puritan captivity narrative. Devices such as alliteration, exaggerated punctuation and emphasis could all be found in a typical piece of the day. Meticulous description served as attention grabbers in the narratives, such as in John Gylesâ€™ severe contact with the frostbite, he writes this description, â€œSoon after the Skin came off my Feet from my Ankles whole like a Shoe, and left my toes naked without a Nail, and the ends of my great Toe-Bones bare, which in a little time turnâ€™d black, so that I was obliged to cut the first Joint off with my Knife.â€(109)
Towards the beginning of the eighteenth century the end had come for the production of captivity narratives. The conceptualization began to become over flourished and largely fictionalized, which began to associate the narrative with the so-called â€œpenny dreadfulsâ€ of the Victorian age. The mid nineteenth century marked the full integration of the previously isolated captivity genre with American literature. Although the autobiographical part had left, the main emotions of the idea left a lasting imprint on the literary world. Puritanical association goes hand in hand with the genre of Indian captivity narratives those views have left lasting impressions by historical documentation and literary impact.
Peckham, Howard H. Captured By Indians: True Tales of Pioneer Survivors. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.1954.
Gyles, John. â€œMemoirs of Odd Adventures, Strange Deliverances, etc., in the Captivity of John Gyles, Esq.â€ Held Captive by Indians: Selected Narratives 1642-1836. VanDerBeets, Richard. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.1973.
Vaughan, Alden T. and Edward W. Clark. Puritans Among the Indians: Accounts of Captivity and Redemption 1676-1724. Cambridge: The Belknap Press.1981