full version Leadership And Management Essay

Leadership And Management

Category: Business

Autor: cat_91 11 December 2009

Words: 2466 | Pages: 10

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Roles and Responsibilities of Organizational Managers and Leaders in Creating and Maintaining a Healthy Organizational Culture

a. Differentiate between management and leadership within your selected organization.

People have varied concepts or an indirect perplexity about leading and managing. In many circumstances, the terms are interchangeably used to mean the same thing. There is a difference between leading and managing and somehow this must now be clearly defined.
Several management theorists attempted to make a clear distinction between leadership and management. According to some, managers do the right things while leaders do things right (Bennis, 1991). This means that the manager’s responsibility lies in efficiently guarding the company policies and physical resources while leaders are more concerned with guiding and giving inspiration to workers with a certain perspective of attaining the company’s vision.
Leadership is simply one characteristic of management. It is an important component in a manager’s directing roles. However, inspiring people does not make one a complete manager, one also needs authority to push or regulate company policies. Although, not all work scenarios require managerial skills or leadership skills, however, there are circumstances wherein both will be needed.

William Roper’s article on Why the Problem of Leadership in Public Health emphasized that most public health workers have low morale due to the public’s perception of public health as dirty and low paying job. In this particular scenario, the leader’s role is deemed essential in boosting worker’s morale. The leader can empathize and inculcate certain values and perspectives in inspiring employee’s sense of self worth. The manager’s skill in this situation is not necessarily called for.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) works for public health safety. Good organizational management and corporate image is necessary to ensure effective delivery of public service. This type of business or service needs good organizational management and public relations in order to foster good relations with the customers. However, this will be realized through cooperative and highly motivated workforce. But workers’ motivation may depend upon the leadership and management approaches.

According to the General Accounting Office report in 2004, the CDCP underwent considerable management challenges including strengthening of leadership and managerial capabilities. The company identified the specific needs particularly the restructuring of managerial positions. Through organizational development the CDCP defined the roles of the managers as well as leaders which resulted to positive reactions from the personnel. The restructuring boost up people morale after the managerial structure is firmed up.
As a manager or a leader, it is important to be aware of the distinct responsibilities between the two roles. Mostly assuming the mantle of both is difficult but may be advantageous as a manager. Jill Geisler in her article Are You a Manager, a Leader, or Both? stated “Not every manager is a leader. Not every leader is a manager. You can be both, if you choose to.”
A leadership with management appears to be the best organizational management system that will take care of both humane and administrative area. In this approach, the leader guides workers into certain direction and administers resources to achieve the perspective. The CDCP indeed was successful in restructuring management system which was beneficial not only to the workers and company but the customers as well.

b. Describe the roles that organizational managers and leaders play in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture in your selected organization.

If workers are happy in their jobs the company gains commitment from them. If one is placed in an unhealthy environment one is creating an unhealthy individual. There is such a link between workers and workplace. Healthy work environment begets healthy workers and consequently robust production. Maintaining healthy organizational environment is essential in ensuring business growth.
But who is responsible for creating a healthy organizational culture? How can a manager or a leader create this kind of working environment? A leader can play a lot of roles in this scenario. He can stir the emotions of the people and create the concept of teamship to unify people into the same perspective. He can help build good self-esteem and values-based environment.

However, these characteristics are put into flesh by enabling company policies and programs that are supportive of employee’s welfare and healthy workplace. In this particular scenario, the manager’s role is deemed essential. It is within his capacity to provide the resources and steer programs that will be supportive of creating healthy organizational culture.
As the company grows, the more difficult it is to manage the work and the people. CDCP’s services grew over the years from simple communicable diseases treatment to a wider scope of public health safety. The organizational growth means new requirements, additional work for personnel and identified gaps brought about by the changes.
The organizational changes may have adverse effect on the work environment and the worker. Hence, as part of CDCP’s transformation efforts in addressing structural changes particularly management, the company defined the specific responsibilities of each designation especially the manager’s duties and responsibilities.
The increase in the number of workforce and vague management structure created problems within the workplace including low morale state of workers, high turnover, job future ambiguity, distrust / disrespect towards colleague and the management. These are signs of unhealthy organizational environment.
CDCP restructured the management set-up which eventually provided clear directions and functions of the workers. The manager has its distinct responsibility to direct the functions and oversee company operations. A leadership role is determined through goal setting and direction efforts. These organizational changes created a positive impact on the workers which brought CDCP to a higher quality level of services.
"A leader can be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader," (Allen, 1998). The success of an organization is determined by the kind of leadership that is demonstrated.

c. Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture within your selected organization.

Management is defined as “a creative problem solving” (Higgins, pg. 7). In order to find the solutions, there are tools that are useful in management. Higgins in his book The Management Challenge outlined these functions of management which are: planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Planning is one of the skills that an effective manager or leader must possess. The organization’s mission and objectives are identified and determined how these plans can be attained. The CDCP has a vision to ensure public health safety. This goal is made possible through strategic planning process called Futures Initiative. The planning efforts were focused on particular concerns such as addressing health issues, customer’s needs and organizational re-structuring. With this goal setting, the employees are directed with the same perspective and vision for the company, hence, eliminating confusion and indifference among its members.
These identified goals are outlined through organizing of work programs and people. Organizing the work structure of the organization involves coordination, manning, tasking and setting of resources. Organization is potent at CDCP since its leadership supports personnel needs to realize personal success that eventually leads to organizational success. CDCP also strengthened its communication system by keeping its communication lines open among its workers to ensure issues and concerns are addressed immediately.
The CDCP undertook certain steps to beef-up its management system by establishing the Executive Leadership Team who are responsible in promoting shared goals with the employee and the organization. The team helped the organization identify the specific needs of the workers that are critical in creating healthy workplace. Motivation is one factor that led CDCP workers to work despite the low regard of most people on their jobs. The team applied daily contact with personnel using open communication and have direct line to each worker as well as to teams and other divisions in the organizations. Through leadership, CDCP successfully enhanced its communication system, thereby creating an open and receptive work communication line among employees.
Instituting performance based on the company’s goals is necessary. This requires that the plans must be implemented properly. The controlling process is one function of management that is equally important with the other managerial duties. Controlling must be viewed at the right perspective. To control does not mean the need for power, although, it is a form of holding certain command or authority over anything that are considered threats to attaining the goals of the company.
This skill is a must for managers to ensure proper implementation of work and proper delegation and distribution of resources. Gemmy Allen stated that ‘Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle.’ (Allen, G., 1998)
Controls are set in CDCP by requiring employees to fulfill its obligations and comply with the organization’s policies. One form of control is taking disciplinary action when necessary. As Allen wrote that “control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied” (Allen, G., 1998). The CDCP’s performance evaluation system is a control mechanism to regulate employee conduct.

d. Recommend at least two strategies that organizational managers and leaders can use to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture within your selected organization. Support your recommendations with the concepts discussed in class and in the text, as well as your personal experiences.
A lot of companies face what is called a “wellness” problem. High turnover of staff is prevalent due to workers frequent sick leaves or retiring from work due to illness or negative impression about the organization. This is an issue of .an unhealthy work environment.
As a manager, maintaining or creating a healthy organizational culture needs good strategy in achieving a healthy workplace. Hundreds of studies and approaches are introduced to obtain better understanding on the employees’ impact on profitability of an organization. Most of the responses prove that creating and maintaining a healthy workplace is one of the raison d’ etre.
There are a lot of strategies that we can vouch for its usefulness, however, the most effective are those approaches that are based on the goals of creating a culture of trust and respect. This is an approach where recognition, control and open communication are given importance.
If an organization health is treated from a cultural perspective rather than a program or systematic approach, there is a greater chance of reaching out the well-being which includes all of the dimensions such as mental, physical, psychological, social aspects of the workers.
Some organizations undertake a "program approach" in treating the work health climate instead of concentrating on the fundamentals. The program approach refers to a methodical and impersonal procedure in addressing work place culture. To give an example, a stress management program may be more handy and less costly than having a culture audit and a tedious process in improving the company's culture. But isn’t it useless to conduct a stress management program to people who are already in a toxic culture?
It would more sensible to have a healthy workplace strategies integrated into the organization's goal to determine the main causes of the problem and be able to install programs and activities that can bring about a culture that will attract and retain energetic and talented people.
The CDCP for example, has applied this approach by integrating in their mission goals the desire for a healthy work climate. One of the innovative things they put in place is the Leadership Team who is responsible in guiding and directing programs that will allow employees to improve their workplace environment. The programs are also integrated into the Future Initiatives program of CDCP which is programmed for implementation.
Another approach is an action model approach that focuses on the nitty-gritty of the problem. It is a system that seeks to understand the essential needs of the workers. Based on researches and studies, the system sought to determine the important aspects of creating and maintaining a healthy work environment (including culture, climate, and organizational practices). Series of questions are raised like what's the employee’s motivation and how can the company retain the best workers?
The approach identified basic criteria of workers that are essential in designing an effective organization and a healthy organizational culture. These are as follows:
The need for an elbow room for decision making is deemed important. The management should let the workers feel they're in control of their own jobs or tasks that they can make their own decisions that they can claim ownership.
Continuous learning and improvement for workers is a fundamental need for employee welfare. Learning is a basic human requirement and people are always hungry for knowledge and improvement. Employees always strive to learn and improve themselves. This applies to when they are to set their objectives, find opportunities and meet challenges and know their strengths and areas of growth.
Work relationships based on mutual trust and respect helps organization to gain workers’ commitments. People would feel comfortable in an environment where people do not harbor ill feelings against each other, that they are able to get support and respect from peers.
If workers outputs are valued by the company and are given meaning this gives them the sense of belongingness, thus, gaining their loyalty. Workers need to be able to relate to what they do and the contribution to the company. Meaningfulness includes the quality of a their work and knowing how they contribute to the whole.
Workers seek a good future in the company. They want to be assured that they will have the opportunity to grow and have a good career path that leads to a desirable future for them.
These examples of organizational workplace approaches make employees empowered and gives them value within their workplace. When workforce feel good they exude the qualities that are essential to having a healthy organizational culture.

A key finding from the executive leaders in public service (APEPS) wrote “… the elements that define a healthy work environment [include] collegiality and sharing; recognizing employees’ contributions; having policies that are based on trust; doing what we say we will do, both individually and as an organization; and encouraging employees to have a balanced life.” (APEPS, 1999)


Association of Professional Executives of the Public Service of Canada. (1999) Beyond the Talk: Achieving a Healthy and Productive Work Environment. Retrieved August 14, 2007 from http://www.psava.com/phc2005/presentations/Kraybill310F_1.pdf.
Higgins, James A. (1994) The Management Challenge, Second edition, Macmillan..
U.S. General Accounting Office (01 November 2006) Agency Leadership Taking Steps to Improve Management and Planning, but Challenges Remain: Human Capital: Key Principles for Effective Strategic Workforce Planning. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
Allen, G. (1998). In Supervision. Retrieved from http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/contents.html
Warren Bennis and Joan Goldsmith. (1997) Learning to Lead: A Workbook on Becoming a Leader. Boulder, CO: Perseus Books.
William L. Roper, Why the Problem of Leadership in Public Health? Leadership in Public Health New York : Milbank Memorial Fund (1994)